Research methods are the tools or instructions used to fulfill the goals and requirements of a research or study. It seems as a methodology or systematic function in which different instruments and methods would be used.
There is no use of a research methodology if it is not being implemented effectively. As well as, research initiates by inquiring the right questions in a right way and selecting the write procedure to investigate such questions. After the collection of right answers ,you can get proper analysis and conclusions based on such questions and answers.
Research doesn’t merely seek to gather data; its primary goal should be discovering answers to previously unanswered questions that contribute to knowledge base within an academic discipline, according to Goddard and Melville (2001, p.1). To prove the credibility of information uncovered or discovered during research for others and society at large.
Somekh & Lewin (2005) define research methodology as the collection of methods or rules you employ when conducting your study and; principles, theories, and values that underlie its implementation (SHU Library 2020). Simply stated: your methodology section in your paper must offer a clear explanation of these processes while detailing how your findings have been analyzed (Somekh/Lewin 2005).
Beginners to research can often find writing the research methodology document a difficult and daunting task (J. Ellis & Levy 2009 323 pp 323). Therefore, this article seeks to define research methodology as well as help novice researchers create their methodology papers and gain an understanding of research method design.
Types of Research Methods
Table of Contents
There are two main types of research methods:
1-Qualitative research method
2-Quantitative research method
1- Qualitative Research Method
In this type of research, various conversational techniques are used for collection of data. People included in this type of method have to answer different types of questions. Their responses are usually gathered on a random basis which is mostly not calculated. Also, this method helps the researchers to know not only the thinking of participants but also it helps the researchers to know the method of thinking of participants.
Qualitative research refers to an approach that seeks to comprehend an individual’s personal experiences through nonprobability sampling methods that do not place predetermined expectations upon their research questions or answers. Researchers then attempt to decode this data through patterns or themes they discover during this analysis process.
There are various qualitative research techniques utilized by researchers, using different means of data gathering such as focus groups, interviews, and observation to glean information regarding participant’s opinions about issues/challenges being explored by them. These techniques collect vital insights regarding feelings/opinions/thoughts concerning what the researchers are investigating or studying.
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Types of Qualitative Research Method
- One-to-one interview
In this method, face-to-face questions are asked to the participants one by one. In this type of session, researchers have to prepare the questions in advance so that they can interview on the spot. Furthermore, the host is allowed to conduct only essential questions from the participant. The time duration of this interview is usually twenty to thirty minutes. During this time researchers have to ask as much as questions as he or she can so that they researchers can draw possible results.
2. Focus squad
Focus squads consist of small groups of people who have better qualities and are mostly experts in the subject matter. Moreover, this small group of people usually includes 6 to 10 participants. A debate is usually held in this method between the squads to discuss the subject matter.
This debate is usually conducted in the presence of an instructor. The instructor should be experienced because his or her experience will play an important role in the debate. The instructor may help the participants to ask valid questions which would help them to gather valuable amount of information about the research.
3. Ethnographic method of research
In this method, people are usually observed in their natural ecosystems. This would help to gather valuable and authentic information. This method is mostly recommended because the researcher gets the chance to enter the personal environment of the people. Geographic limitations can act as a boundary as well in this type of qualitative research method. Moreover, rather than conducting interviews with people, the researcher will get the chance to experience the routine life of people which proves beneficial for him.
4. Content analysis
In this method, an analysis is done by the researchers based on the decoding of documentation available to them. This is a different kind of research. The researchers read and learn the background in which the content is written and then try to conclude it. This type of research is most common nowadays on many online platforms for the conduct of different research.
5. Case study
This type of research method is mostly used by any organization or company. This type of research is being used in different sectors like education, philosophy psychology, etc. This modern type of research seems a good source for the collection of data.